McKenna and Sarah Mosko.
Therefore, recommendations for sleep position and the sleep environment, unless otherwise specified, are for the first year after birth. The evidence-based recommendations that follow are provided to guide health care providers in conversations with parents and others who care for infants.
Health care providers are encouraged to have open and nonjudgmental conversations with families about their sleep practices. Individual medical conditions may warrant that a health care provider recommend otherwise after weighing the relative risks and benefits. Back to sleep for every sleep.
To reduce the risk of SIDS, infants should be placed for sleep in a supine position wholly on the back for every sleep by every caregiver until the child reaches 1 year of age. There is no evidence to suggest that infants receiving nasogastric or orogastric feeds are at an increased risk of aspiration if placed in the supine position.
Preterm infants should be placed supine as soon as possible.
Preterm infants are at increased risk of SIDS, 1314 and the association between prone sleep position and SIDS among low birth weight and preterm infants is equal to, or perhaps even stronger than, the association among those born at term.
Hospitalized preterm infants should be kept predominantly in the supine position, at least from the postmenstrual age of 32 weeks onward, so that they become acclimated to supine sleeping before discharge.
There is no evidence that placing infants on their side during the first few hours after delivery promotes clearance of amniotic The importance of keeping our environment safe and decreases the risk of aspiration.
Infants in the newborn nursery and infants who are rooming in with their parents should be placed in the supine position as soon as they are ready to be placed in the bassinet. Although data to make specific recommendations as to when it is safe for infants to sleep in the prone or side position are lacking, studies establishing prone and side sleeping as risk factors for SIDS include infants up to 1 year of age.
Therefore, the best evidence suggests that infants should continue to be placed supine until 1 year of age.
Once an infant can roll from supine to prone and from prone to supine, the infant can be allowed to remain in the sleep position that he or she assumes.
Use a firm sleep surface. Infants should be placed on a firm sleep surface eg, mattress in a safety-approved crib covered by a fitted sheet with no other bedding or soft objects to reduce the risk of SIDS and suffocation.
Soft mattresses, including those made from memory foam, could create a pocket or indentation and increase the chance of rebreathing or suffocation if the infant is placed in or rolls over to the prone position.
This is particularly important for used cribs. Cribs with missing hardware should not be used, nor should the parent or provider attempt to fix broken components of a crib, because many deaths are associated with cribs that are broken or with missing parts including those that have presumably been fixed.
Local organizations throughout the United States can help to provide low-cost or free cribs or play yards for families with financial constraints. Bedside sleepers are attached to the side of the parental bed.
The CPSC has published safety standards for these products, 22 and they may be considered by some parents as an option. However, there are no CPSC safety standards for in-bed sleepers.
The task force cannot make a recommendation for or against the use of either bedside sleepers or in-bed sleepers, because there have been no studies examining the association between these products and SIDS or unintentional injury and death, including suffocation.
Only mattresses designed for the specific product should be used. Mattresses should be firm and should maintain their shape even when the fitted sheet designated for that model is used, such that there are no gaps between the mattress and the wall of the crib, bassinet, portable crib, or play yard.
Pillows or cushions should not be used as substitutes for mattresses or in addition to a mattress. Mattress toppers, designed to make the sleep surface softer, should not be used for infants younger than 1 year.
There is no evidence that special crib mattresses and sleep surfaces that claim to reduce the chance of rebreathing carbon dioxide when the infant is in the prone position reduce the risk of SIDS.
However, there is no disadvantage to the use of these mattresses if they meet the safety standards as described previously. Soft materials or objects, such as pillows, quilts, comforters, or sheepskins, even if covered by a sheet, should not be placed under a sleeping infant. If a mattress cover to protect against wetness is used, it should be tightly fitting and thin.
Infants should not be placed for sleep on beds, because of the risk of entrapment and suffocation. The infant should sleep in an area free of hazards, such as dangling cords, electric wires, and window-covering cords, because these may present a strangulation risk. Sitting devices, such as car seats, strollers, swings, infant carriers, and infant slings, are not recommended for routine sleep in the hospital or at home, particularly for young infants.
If an infant falls asleep in a sitting device, he or she should be removed from the product and moved to a crib or other appropriate flat surface as soon as is safe and practical. Car seats and similar products are not stable on a crib mattress or other elevated surfaces.
Breastfeeding is associated with a reduced risk of SIDS. Although there is no specific evidence for moving an infant to his or her own room before 1 year of age, the first 6 months are particularly critical, because the rates of SIDS and other sleep-related deaths, particularly those occurring in bed-sharing situations, are highest in the first 6 months.
Room-sharing reduces SIDS risk and removes the possibility of suffocation, strangulation, and entrapment that may occur when the infant is sleeping in the adult bed. Some products designed for in-bed use in-bed sleepers are currently under study but results are not yet available.One of the most important things that you can do for your preschooler is to establish routines.
Here's expert advice and tips from a child psychologist. 3 September Updated 'Keeping children safe in education'. Updates include changes to information for all staff (part 1) and the management of safeguarding (part 2) and a new section covering.
And our indoor environment is two to five times more toxic than our outdoor environment! (2) Yikes! Also, according to the CDC, water pollution can lead to gastrointestinal illness, reproductive problems, and neurological disorders.
How important is a safe and clean environment?
The environment has a huge potential to increase the risk of cross infection. Therefore a clean and safe environment is essential and is everyone's business.
Test. HOW IMPORTANT IS A CLEAN AND SAFE ENVIROMENT? Author: walshp. Occupational Health & Safety is the industry-leading news magazine, eNewsletter, and website for occupational health and safety professionals focusing on problem-solving solutions, latest news.
Online Safeguarding Courses. You can access a wide range of online courses via our Safeguarding e-Academy - Courses takes approximately hours with a short test of knowledge at the end for which successful participants will be able to .