Cutthroat trout are monogamous pair spawners The anglerfish Haplophryne mollis is polyandrous. This female is trailing the atrophied remains of males she has encountered Monogamy occurs when one male mates with one female exclusively. This is also called pair spawning.
Effects[ edit ] American psychologist and counterculture figure Timothy Leary conducted early experiments into the effects of psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin. In the early s, Timothy Leary and colleagues at Harvard University investigated the role of set and setting on the effects of psilocybin.
They administered the drug to volunteers from various backgrounds in an environment intended to be similar to a comfortable living room. Ninety-eight of the subjects were given questionnaires to assess their experiences and the contribution of background and situational factors.
Individuals who had experience with psilocybin prior to the study reported more pleasant experiences than those for whom the drug was novel. Group size, dosage, preparation, and expectancy were important determinants of the drug response.
In general, those placed in groups of more than eight individuals felt that the groups were less supportive, and their experiences were less pleasant.
Conversely, smaller groups fewer than six individuals were seen as more supportive. Participants also reported having more positive reactions to the drug in those groups.
Leary and colleagues proposed that psilocybin heightens suggestibilitymaking an individual more receptive to interpersonal interactions and environmental stimuli. About a third of users report feelings of anxiety or paranoia.
Closed-eye hallucinations may occur, in which the affected individual sees multicolored geometric shapes and vivid imaginative sequences. Griffiths and colleagues suggests that a single high dosage of psilocybin can cause long-term changes in the personality of its users.
About half of the study participants—described as healthy, "spiritually active", and many possessing postgraduate degrees —showed an increase in the personality dimension of openness assessed using the Revised NEO Personality Inventoryand this positive effect was apparent more than a year after the psilocybin session.
According to the study authors, the finding is significant because "no study has prospectively demonstrated personality change in healthy adults after an experimentally manipulated discrete event.
Psilocybin is known to strongly influence the subjective experience of the passage of time. Users having an unpleasant experience a " bad trip " describe a reaction accompanied by fear, other unpleasant feelings, and occasionally by dangerous behavior.
In general, the phrase "bad trip" is used to describe a reaction that is characterized primarily by fear or other unpleasant emotions, not just transitory experience of such feelings. A variety of factors may contribute to a psilocybin user experiencing a bad trip, including "tripping" during an emotional or physical low or in a non-supportive environment see: Ingesting psilocybin in combination with other drugs, including alcohol, can also increase the likelihood of a bad trip.
However, in the Psychedelics Encyclopedia, author Peter Stafford noted, "The psilocybin experience seems to be warmer, not as forceful and less isolating.
It tends to build connections between people, who are generally much more in communication than when they use LSD. Reflecting the meaning of the word entheogen "the god within"the mushrooms are revered as powerful spiritual sacraments that provide access to sacred worlds. Typically used in small group community settings, they enhance group cohesion and reaffirm traditional values.
Some scholars have proposed that many of the qualities of a drug-induced mystical experience are indistinguishable from mystical experiences achieved through non-drug techniquessuch as meditation or holotropic breathwork. These categories, according to Pahnke, "describe the core of a universal psychological experience, free from culturally determined philosophical or theological interpretations", and allow researchers to assess mystical experiences on a qualitative, numerical scale.
Nevertheless, he said that the study cast "a considerable doubt on the assertion that mystical experiences catalyzed by drugs are in any way inferior to non-drug mystical experiences in both their immediate content and long-term effects".
Richards, who in a review stated "[psychedelic] mushroom use may constitute one technology for evoking revelatory experiences that are similar, if not identical, to those that occur through so-called spontaneous alterations of brain chemistry. A group of researchers from Johns Hopkins School of Medicine led by Griffiths conducted a study to assess the immediate and long-term psychological effects of the psilocybin experience, using a modified version of the mystical experience questionnaire and a rigorous double-blind procedure.
Leary abandoned in the early s. The degree of mystical experience was measured using a questionnaire developed by Ralph W. These negative effects were reported to be easily managed by the researchers and did not have a lasting negative effect on the subject's sense of well-being.
Almost one-third of the subjects reported that the experience was the single most meaningful or spiritually significant event of their lives, and over two-thirds reported it among their five most spiritually significant events.Psilocybin (/ ˌ s aɪ l ə ˈ s aɪ b ɪ n / sy-lə-SY-bin) is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin grupobittia.com most potent are members of the genus Psilocybe, such as P.
ABOUT FUNGUYS. Funguys Gourmet is producing quality mushroom cultures and mushroom seed grupobittia.com keep cultures of both edible and medicinal mushroom species, . Latin Name: Lentinula edodesFruiting Temperature: 55–75 °F This is an all-weather strain. It can fruit from 50–80 °F but performs best at 58–60 °F. An ideal candidate for indoor cultivation on supplemented sawdust. Incubation time is about 6 weeks (on alder). Fungi Perfecti's Sawdust / Wood Chip Spawn comes in a dispos. Mushroom Cultivation Links Home Cultivation Supplies: kits, spawn, books etc. Fungi Perfecti Paul Stamets, leader in the home cultivation field — supplies, books, kits, everything a mushroom .
azurescens, P. semilanceata, and P. cyanescens, but psilocybin has also been isolated from about a dozen other genera. Cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms Oyster mushroom production is on the increase in the United States.
This article details the cultivation of oyster mushrooms from spawn to . Production. The Technology Behind the Spawn. Sylvan has been dedicated to mushroom spawn innovation since its early beginnings, providing consistent, innovative spawn products to mushroom growers around the world.
Whether it’s our global presence, the decades of spawn making expertise or the scale of our operations, here at Sylvan we pride ourselves on our dedication to the global mushroom industry.
HARLEQUIN’S GARDENS CLASSES AND EVENTS FOR Our teachers have spent years honing their skills in Colorado and will help guide you to success. Beginning Farmers offers information on how to start a farm, planning a new farm, funding resources and finding land to start your farm on.
We cover all areas of farming from raising chickens and goats to mushroom production, and urban farms to business farming.