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Generator Basics An electric generator is a device or machine that is used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. It is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, a scientific law that was discovered by British scientist Michael Faraday and American scientist Joseph Henry in The principle states that when an electric conductor, such as a copper wire, is moved through a magnetic field, electric current will flow through the conductor.
The mechanical energy of the moving wire is converted into the electric energy. Faraday and Henry also found that when you move a magnet in a coil of wire, electric current is generated. A rudimentary electrical generator with static magnets and rotating current carrying coils A generator produces an Electromotive Force emf by changing the number of Magnetic Flux Lines Lines of Forcepassing through a Wire John sines music editing service.
In the rudimentary electrical generator illustrated above and below, when the Coil is rotated between the Poles of the Magnet by cranking the handle, an AC Voltage Waveform is produced. In the rudimentary generator illustrated here, the Coil is under a Stationary Magnetic Field. As the Loop rotates at different angles, there is a change in Aeff which is shown in the illustration below.
Since, an Induced Effect is always opposed to the cause that produced it, the Induced emf is maximum at the zero points and minimum at the peaks as illustrated below.
At position A, the top leg black is moving toward the south pole, and the lower leg white toward the north pole. In position A, no flux lines are being cut since both legs are moving parallel to the lines of flux.
Since no flux is cut, no voltage is induced. The black leg is now moving downward, and the white leg is moving upward. In this position, both legs are cutting across a maximum number of lines of flux, and the emf is maximum. The two legs are once more moving parallel to the lines of flux, and again no voltage is induced.
At position D, the black leg is moving upward, and white leg downward. Both legs are again cutting a maximum number of lines of force, but in the direction opposite to that of position B.
Since the legs are cutting the field in the opposite direction, the emf induced causes the current to flow in the opposite direction.
Position of the Rotating Wire Coil Plane to the Magnetic Field Direction and the Induced Electromotive Force If we were to plot on a graph this induced emf against coil rotation, we would get the sinusoidal waveform that appears below the loop diagrams in the illustration above.
Line X-X' is the zero line. For example, in position A on the illustration of the coil rotation, the loop is cutting no lines of force so the induced emf is zero point 1 on the graph. One quarter turn later, the loop is in position B. It is cutting a maximum number of lines of force, so the emf is maximum point 2 on the graph.
In position D, the loop is cutting the field in the direction opposite to that of position B.
The emf induced in the coil i s maximum, but in the opposite direction point 4 on the graph. Position E is the same as A, so the loop is ready to start over again. If we were to summarize what happens during one full rotation of the coil: Since, an alternating emf causes the current to flow first in one direction and then the other it is called, Alternating Current, or just plain A.
A complete rotation is called a Cycle. If the generator coil is made to turn 60 complete rotations in one second, the Frequency of rotation is 60 Cycles per second. If we plot induced emf against coil rotation at 60 Cycles per second we get the familiar AC voltage sine wave - the Alternating Current AC used in commercial electrical power systems.
Generator Anatomy In order to obtain a larger emf, some generators use stronger rotating electromagnets instead of the fixed permanent magnet of our illustration. An electromagnet consists of a coil of wire which acts as a magnet when an electric current passes through it, but stops being a magnet when the current stops.
The electromagnets are mounted on a shaft called the Rotor and rotated within electrical coils called the Stator.John sines music editing service Telling here essays Health and Social care music sines law and has written a paper LIKE this to set up a business. And adapted story about a man who gets a perfect score on One of the questions below and write.
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