Is it the responsibility of an individual's genetic makeup that makes them a criminal or is it the environment in which they are raised that determines their outcome?
Overview[ edit ] Aggression can have adaptive benefits or negative effects. Aggressive behavior is an individual or collective social interaction that is a hostile behavior with the intention of inflicting Genetics and criminal behavior or harm.
One includes affective emotional and hostile, reactive, or retaliatory aggression that is a response to provocation, and the other includes instrumental, goal-oriented or predatoryin which aggression is used as a mean to achieve a goal. An instrumental form of aggression would be armed robbery.
Research on violence from a range of disciplines lend some support to a distinction between affective and predatory aggression. These depend on such things as whether the aggression is verbal or physical; whether or not it involves relational aggression such as covert bullying and social manipulation;  whether harm to others is intended or not; whether it is carried out actively or expressed passively; and whether the aggression is aimed directly or indirectly.
Classification may also encompass aggression-related emotions e. The operative definition of aggression may be affected by moral or political views. Examples are the axiomatic moral view called the non-aggression principle and the political rules governing the behavior of one country toward another.
Psychological approaches conceptualize aggression as a destructive instinct, a response to frustration, an affect excited by a negative stimulus, a result of observed learning of society and diversified reinforcement, a resultant of variables that affect personal and situational environments.
The Latin was itself a joining of ad- and gradi- which meant step at. The first known use dates back toin the sense of an unprovoked attack.
Child raising experts began to refer to aggression, rather than anger, from the s. In such settings aggression can involve bodily contact such as biting, hitting or pushing, but most conflicts are settled by threat displays and intimidating thrusts that cause no physical harm.
This form of aggression may include the display of body size, antlers, claws or teeth; stereotyped signals including facial expressions; vocalizations such as bird song; the release of chemicals; and changes in coloration.
Most ethologists believe that aggression confers biological advantages. Aggression may help an animal secure territoryincluding resources such as food and water. Aggression may also occur for self-protection or to protect offspring.
However, according to many researchers, predation is not aggression. A cat does not hiss or arch its back when pursuing a rat, and the active areas in its hypothalamus resemble those that reflect hunger rather than those that reflect aggression. An animal defending against a predator may engage in either " fight or flight " or " tend and befriend " in response to predator attack or threat of attack, depending on its estimate of the predator's strength relative to its own.
Alternative defenses include a range of antipredator adaptationsincluding alarm signals. An example of an alarm signal is nerol, a chemical which is found in the mandibular glands of Trigona fulviventris individuals.
One of its most common functions is to establish a dominance hierarchy. This occurs in many species by aggressive encounters between contending males when they are first together in a common environment.
Group-living animals may dispute over the direction of travel or the allocation of time to joint activities. Various factors limit the escalation of aggression, including communicative displays, conventions, and routines.
In addition, following aggressive incidents, various forms of conflict resolution have been observed in mammalian species, particularly in gregarious primates.
These can mitigate or repair possible adverse consequences, especially for the recipient of aggression who may become vulnerable to attacks by other members of a group. Conciliatory acts vary by species and may involve specific gestures or simply more proximity and interaction between the individuals involved.
However, conflicts over food are rarely followed by post conflict reunions, even though they are the most frequent type in foraging primates. Captive animals including primates may show abnormal levels of social aggression and self-harm that are related to aspects of the physical or social environment; this depends on the species and individual factors such as gender, age and background e.
This cost-benefit analysis can be looked at in terms of evolution. However, there are profound differences in the extent of acceptance of a biological or evolutionary basis for human aggression. As such, conflicts may have created selection evolutionary pressures for psychological mechanisms in men to initiate intergroup aggression.
This is most obviously the case in terms of attacking prey to obtain food, or in anti-predatory defense. It may also be the case in competition between members of the same species or subgroup, if the average reward e. There are some hypotheses of specific adaptions for violence in humans under certain circumstances, including for homicidebut it is often unclear what behaviors may have been selected for and what may have been a byproduct, as in the case of collective violence.
Game theory is used to understand how such behaviors might spread by natural selection within a population, and potentially become 'Evolutionary Stable Strategies'. An initial model of resolution of conflicts is the hawk-dove game.
Others include the Sequential assessment model and the Energetic war of attrition. These try to understand not just one-off encounters but protracted stand-offs, and mainly differ in the criteria by which an individual decides to give up rather than risk loss and harm in physical conflict such as through estimates of resource holding potential.
However the conditions under which women and men differ in aggressiveness are not well understood or studied.The Personal Genetics Education Project raises awareness and sparks conversation about the potential benefits as well as the ethical, legal, and social implications of personal genetics.
We strive to be inclusive of all voices in these discussions, regardless of socioeconomic or educational background, cultural or religious affiliation, and ethnic or personal identity. The field of psychology has been greatly influenced by the study of grupobittia.coms of research has demonstrated that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in a variety of behaviors in humans and animals (e.g.
Grigorenko & Sternberg, ). One author (Kenneth Taylor) points out that the biological significance of a criminal act depends upon the circumstances in which the behavior takes place and concludes (mysteriously) that “a great deal of research in cognitive science needs to be done before research in genetics becomes relevant” (p.
15). Dean A. Haycock, PhD, is a science and medical writer, who earned a PhD in neurobiology from Brown University and studied at The Rockefeller University in the . The reasons behind criminal behavior can vary a lot in each particular case, but still they can be grouped in two main categories – genetics and environment.
When in the mid 19 th century the question about the causes of criminal behavior was raised, a lot of psychologists were insisting that the only reason is genetics. As a father the content of my conversations with friends and acquaintances has changed somewhat.
Whereas in my offline life discussions of behavior genetics rarely came up, now they loom large.