Clarity and consistent communication, from mapping desired outcomes to designing performance measures, seem to be essential to success. Successful leaders have often engaged their teams by simply telling the story of their shared vision, and publicly celebrating large and small wins, such as the achievement of milestones.
About this Typology About this Typology This typology breaks down the traditional boundaries between the nonprofit and private sectors and draws definition to this new institutional animal--part business-part social--the social enterprise. In doing so, the typology explores how institutions have combined a mix of social values and goals with commercial business practices and how they have come up with ownership models, income and capitalization strategies, and unique management and service systems designed to maximize social value.
The illustrative typology classifies different models of social enterprise in order to navigate readers through the currently ill-defined, diverse and dynamic landscape of this emerging field.
This typology is an outgrowth of a paper commissioned by the Inter-American Development Bank in entitled: The typology is a work in progress, and will be updated with new models, examples, and case studies. We invite you to send us your comments and examples of your social enterprises that we can include here.
Attribution should be made by providing a link to http: The Author The Author Kim Alter has endeavored to bring business practices to nonprofit organizations and international development agencies, encouraging their sustainability through earned income, in more than 30 countries worldwide for over a dozen years.
She is founder and Principal of Virtue Venturesa management consulting firm specializing in social enterprise. Web and document designs are by Vincent Dawans from Virtue Ventures. Kim and Vincent can be contacted via the online contact form. Document Structure Document Structure The typology is organized in five main sections that can be read in any order based on the reader's interest and familiarity with the subject.
The second section puts the social enterprise field in context. It starts by organizing practitioners on a spectrum by their philanthropic versus their commercial orientation.
The third section presents several ways of classifying social enterprises, either based on their mission orientationbased on the level of integration between social programs and business activitiesor based on the nature of their target market. The fourth section presents several common social enterprise operational models grouped into three main structural categories which cover a wide range of interplay between several variables, such as clients, market, social service programs, mission orientation, financial objectives, etc.
Finally, the fifth section examines social enterprise structures as they relate to ownership and legal status. Acknowledgements Acknowledgements The Inter-American Development Bank must be recognized for commissioning the original version of this paper entitled: Without the support provided by the Inter-American Development Bank this work simply would not have been possible.
Specific thanks are owed to Alvaro Rameriz, Division Deputy Chief and Jacqueline Bass, Senior Advisor for Micro and Small Enterprise, the Inter-American Development Bank, who provided the foresight and leadership to instigate this typology, labored over the cases, and tirelessly read and commented on the paper in its various incarnations.
I would like to thank and acknowledge the contributions of the following individuals who agreed to review and provide feedback on this paper. Each one is a respected leader and major contributor to the social enterprise and international economic development fields; their thoughts, ideas, words, and previous work laid the foundation for this piece.
Special recognition goes to Vincent Dawans from Virtue Ventures for his contributions to sections on impact measurements and graphical representations. Finally, much gratitude is due to Laura Brown, faithful editor, who willingly took this paper in its original incarnation on her vacation.
Inthe Social Entrepreneurship Program SEPwhich replaced the Small Projects Fund, was created to promote social equity and the economic development of poor and marginal groups.
The Social Entrepreneurship Program promotes business operations that generate social benefits and help community organizations encourage microenterprise development. Thus, in its year history, the Bank has supported numerous projects that fall under the rubric of social enterprise through this program.
SEP uses its resources strategically and funds a limited number of representative projects; such operations must be capable of promoting learning between countries or of being emulated in other parts of the region.
Supports financial services and business development projects with a special emphasis on poor and marginalized groups. Government agencies, bilateral funds, and multilateral donors have joined forces with IDB and the Social Entrepreneurship Program to strengthen that assistance.
The IDB Group is committed to contributing to the success of this new type of social enterprise and supporting projects that offer financial and business development services as well as social and community services in a sound, efficient, and sustainable way to benefit low-income people, indigenous groups, women, youth, and other marginalized groups.
Foreword to the original version, by Jed Emerson Foreword to the original version, by Jed Emerson The ability to create, to break the mold, to engage in enterprise is perhaps one of the greatest attributes of humanity.
Our capacity for shortsightedness, bias, and provincialism is perhaps our greatest weakness. This document gives evidence of the first, and foreshadows the coming of the second. While its roots are deep in our past, over the last three decades we have witnessed an explosion of innovation as a growing international community of individuals has experimented with a great variety of approaches to fulfilling one basic idea: Markets and business, capital and commerce can be harnessed not simply for the creation of individual wealth, but rather the creation of value in its fullest.
These innovators have sought to create value consisting of equal parts equity, ecology, and economic development. They have broken with the beliefs of traditionalists to practice a form of social enterprise that seeks to engage in the community application of business skill and acumen.
These social entrepreneurs have created a rich diversity of approaches and strategies, all of which are now coming together within a unified, global parade. It is, however, a parade of many marchers, bands, and different colored banners. Having spent years on various side streets, the diverse parts of the parade are now flooding the grand avenue and approaching the town square, which is filled by glorious music and pageantry--and yet in the midst of the celebration we are suddenly aware we have a problem.
But too many words clashing in meaning; too many ideas promoted before having stood the test of time; and too many parts moving in a blur of confusion. What is needed is a way to rise above the fracas, a tool to help us transcend the music of our own band in order to see the breadth of the musical parade in motion before us.
What we need is a single, clear assessment of who "we" are and "what it is we are doing. Building on the nearly three decades of funding experience of the Social Enterprise Program of the Inter-American Development Bank, drawing upon the writings of practitioners and thought leaders from around the world, Kim has done an excellent job presenting us--social entrepreneur, investor, academic, and practitioner--with a set of frameworks and definitions to assist each of us in understanding how our own work fits with that of others and how together these various parts are unavoidably becoming interwoven into a singular whole.The information for this article was derived from many sources, including Michael Porter’s book Competitive Advantage and the works of Philip grupobittia.comts addressed include ‘generic’ strategies and strategies for pricing, distribution, promotion, advertising and market segmentation.
Courses. Choosing a course is one of the most important decisions you'll ever make! View our courses and see what our students and lecturers have to say about the courses you are interested in at the links below. Go to Overview; Go to previous chapter 3 Information Economy; Go to next chapter 5 Information Systems Design; Chapter 5: Information Systems Design.
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The quality of a leader’s decisions can make or break him. Yet most of us get decision making all wrong.
This paper extends international business theory by providing insights into contextual boundaries of the dominant strategic adaptation model, based on assumptions of low power distance and a bottom-up management style. D1: Evaluate the Appropriateness of Business Information Used to Make Strategic Decisions Words May 16th, 4 Pages When a business forms a strategy they are producing a large scale plan with plans to achieve one or more goals set by the business. Insyght is a leading scientific and commercial strategic services provider for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.
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